Descoperiri monetare în zona cetăţii dacice de la Cugir


This study aims at presenting the history of the Dacian fortress of Cugir based on the monetary findings, found within the citadel itself or nearby.The first coin hoard (Cugir I)is known since 1868 and contains around 200 silver coins. Most of them were scattered away, some entering various collections, only a few pieces ending up with the specialists. The hoard, hidden in a vessel, contained an unspecified number of Thasos tetradrachms, eight issued in Macedonia Prima, Dacian tetradrachms of Aiud-Cugir and Răduleşti-Hunedoara types, a drachma imitating an issue from Alexander the Great -Philip the IIIrd’ Arrhidaeusand a unique drachma.In the same period was recorded the discovery of another important hoard, containing several items (bracelets, rings and pieces of harness) as well as pre-Roman gold coins. The hoard, according to Josef Lewitzky, the one that published the information in 1901, was found by accident when quarrying the hill west of Cetate for construction materials. The most important part of the hoard ended up in Budapest and the rest was melted in Alba Iulia. We do not know if this hoard is different from the one mentioned in 1868 (Cugir I).The second coin hoard (Cugir II)was discovered in 1955, at the base of the western part of Dealul Cetăţii (the Citadel’s Hill), in a place called Valea Viilor. Hidden in a ceramic vessel, the hoard contained an approximate number of 2000 silver coins. The items recovered right after the discovery contained eight Macedonia Prima tetradrachms and an imitation of Philip II (kept in the collections of the Dacian and Roman Civilizations Museum at Deva), were published by Octavian Floca. Later, other pieces were recovered from the locals by Ion H. Crişan: a Dacian coin of Răduleşti-Hunedoara type and four Macedonia Prima tetradrachms, these last ones remaining unpublished until now and kept within the collections of the Union’s Museum in Alba Iulia. In total, from this hoard, we have 14 coins (12 Macedonia Prima tetradrachms, one coin from Philip II, a Dacian coin of Răduleşti-Hunedoara type). The remaining quantity was melted into silver ingots by the locals. If completely recovered this would have been one of the largest hoards in pre-Roman Dacia.In 1937 on Dealul Cetăţiifrom Cugir the priest Oancea of Cioara recovered two imperial coins from Domitianus.Several other coins were found isolated around the Cugir citadel. Some of these are described since 100 years ago, without any depiction of items. One Dacian coin comes from a systematically researched house. Other coins come from the same excavations and can be dated at the end of the 2ndCentury BC and were issued by the Greek city of Odessos. Also from Cugir we have the coin kept in the collection of the Coin Cabinet of the Romanian Science Academy in Bucharest, a Dacian issue of Toc-Chereluş type.It is very likely that the hoard discovered at Cugir, in 1868, contained also the eight Aiud-Cugir type coins, known as the “Cugir-Sibişel” hoard and kept at the Brukenthal Museum in Sibiu.The coins contained in the hoards from Cugir (1868 and 1955) can be dated at the end of the second century BC and the beginning of the first century BC, thus depicting an association between the Macedonia Prima tetradrachms with the local issues of Aiud-Cugir or Răduleşti Hunedoara type. There is a complete absence of Roman dinars and only two Imperial coins issued by Emperor Domitianus (probably from a separate hoard). An interesting issue is raised by the pre-Roman gold coins mentioned to be found around Cugir at the same time when the Cugir I hoard was found. Lacking any means to verify this information, it is hard to draw any conclusions.The hoards and isolated finds of coins from the perimeter of the Dacian fortress of Cugir illustrate an intense economic activity for the settlers of this region in pre-Roman times. They also confirm the period of maximum importance for the fortress in the second to the first centuries BC, followed by a decline that led to the fortress being abandoned and dismantled sometime during the first century BC. Given the lack of other information, the two coins from Domitianus could be related to a habitation sometime in the first Century AD, the fortress thus lasting until the Roman conquest of Dacia. The moment of itsdestruction during the wars is documented by a thick layer of burnt materials covering the entire surface of the civilian settlement and that of the fortification.

coin hoards, Dacian coins, coin imitations, Macedonia Prima tetradrachms, Aiud-Cugir, Răduleşti-Hunedoara, Toc-Chereluş, Philip II, Cugir.
List of illustrations

Explanation of figures and plates: Fig. 1: Map of the dwelling Dacian fortress of Cugir (1 –Dealul Cetăţii, 2 –După Cetate, 3 –Crucea Viilor, 4 –Sub Cetate, 5 –Stadionul Parc, 6 -Chicera) andpre-Roman monetary findings (-Dealul Cetăţii–approximate location of the discovery of treasure in 1868 –instead of finding treasure in 1955) (image source: Google Earth).Pl. 1: Coins of the treasure discovered in 1868 at Cugir-Hill Fortress: unique drachma (1), imitation of Alexander the Great, Philip III Arrhidaeus (2), Dacian-Cugir Aiud type (3-9); Dacian coin typ Toc-Chereluş found at Cugir (10) (after C. Preda –1, 9; I. Winkler 2, 7-8; F. Rómer –3-6; C. C. Giurescu –10).Pl. 2: Dacian hoard “Cugir-Sibişel” (after N. Lupu).Pl. 3: Macedonian tetradrahms hoard from Cugir-Sub Coastă(after C. I. Popa).Pl. 4: Imitation as a coin posthumous Philip II (1), coin-type Răduleşti Hunedoara (2) and tetradrahms Macedonia Prima (3-6) of the hoard from Cugir-Sub Coastă.Pl. 5: Macedonia Prima tetradrahms monograms present on the hoard from Cugir-Sub Coastă.