Intoleranz in Chiavenna im Zeitalter der Toleranz. Religiöse „Koexistenz“ in Chiavenna nach dem Toleranzedikt (1781)

pp. 177-198
Abstract: The counties Chiavenna (Cleven), Piuro (P Abstract lurs), Bormio (Worms) and the Valtellina since 1512 belonged to the territory of the State of the Three Leagues (Grisons). Due to the significant emigration of Italian reformers and non-conformists, became the Valtellina and Chiavenna to a particular centre of the new faith. With the onset of the Catholic reform was the residence of reformed believers in Chiavenna and the Valtellina to political issue from the church. Despite massive actions against the reformers during the Thirty Years War (1620: murder of Valtellina) and the unfavourable political conditions in various „Mailänder Kapitulate“ (1639, 1726, 1763) could the Reformed confession, especially in the 18th Century, again recast foot. In the county of Chiavenna was finally in the second half of the 18th Century about 15% of the population of the Reformed confession. The Edict of Toleration (1781) of Emperor Joseph II should mark a turning point in the religious coexistence in Chiavenna. Letters and advanced of the Bundestag in the following time give witness to this. Manifold political actions and unrest in the subjects landing in the same time but led to new conflicts between the totalitarian structured Gubernium of Milan and the democratic State of the Three Leagues. Some religious authorities contributed to the poisoning of the situation in its own way, until finally, at the end of the 18th Century, a religious coexistence in Chiavenna the Reformed and the Catholic faith was impossible. Many hand-written sources give testimony to what extent religious slander and denunciations were part of the agenda and led finally to emigration of believers of the Reformed confession.
Keywords reformers emigration, Chiavenna, religious coexistence, Edict of Toleration, intolerance.