Între normă şi formă. Evoluţia arhitecturii baroce în mediul ortodox din Banat (secolul al XVIII-lea)

pp. 89-110
Abstract: Once with transformation of Banat into im Abstract perial province, enter also religious Catholic orders interested in attracting to an as broad as possible number of believers from an area that was under the Ottoman rule for 164 years. Jesuits, Bosnian Franciscans, Piarists and Brothers of Misericordia will establish in the province newly acquired by the Habsburg Empire, with the status of imperial province, new quarters of orders, monasteries and schools, these orders being the ones that introduced in the newly built architecture, central-European Baroque elements. Amongst these orders, the Jesuits will be the first who will transform old churches (as it is St. George church from Timişoara) into Jesuit churches and by religious fervour, eloquent sermons and religious tolerance will attract a great number of supporters, succeeding in short time to convert both Protestants and Orthodox Jews. Manner by which their sermons succeeded to mark even a new way of life, transforming the magnificent celebration of feasts from the Catholic calendar, into inside of some monumental churches whose indoors were scenographically arranged to impress man of the 18th century, who was under the permanent threat of fatality, armed conflicts, disasters, will constitute the visual support of the winners’ ideology. Churches that the Catholic orders from Banat will built in Banat throughout the 18th century will be monumental constructions derived from the prototype made by A. Pilgram, basilical plan with two towers on the facade, extensive choir and grandious indoors with main altar and lateral altars as necessary elements of Baroque scenography. Tolerance towards the Orthodox population from the province is noticed in taking over the architectural models from the Catholic environment, only that tolerance was restricted to models, merely with several exceptions (the church of the Metropolitan See from Sremski Karlovač and the Serbian church from Timişoara) the Orthodoxs were allowed to build church cathedrals with two towers on the facade, in the majority of the cases there being accepted only constructions with a massive tower on the surface.
Baroque, architecture, evolution, influences, Banat.